Why the Windows Server 2016 Backup Does Not Work?

Option 1

Enter the command:

Dism /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:WindowsServerBackupSnapin /All

This command also allows you to restore the functionality of other services without having to reinstall the entire operating system.

Option 2 

If the previous method did not help, at the command line type:

wbadmin delete catalog

Option 3

There might also be a problem with the framework, do:

sfc /scannow

and restart the server.